A person filling out an income tax form.
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States that have increased taxes the most in the last four decades

Depending on where you live in the U.S., your state and local taxes may have shifted over the last year.

The feared decline in American spending at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic never fully materialized as stimulus and pandemic aid programs kept consumers buying and sending sales taxes into state and local government coffers.

But while the stimulus-fueled spending spree alleviated concerns about bringing in tax revenue for critical functions in local government, it also helped spur record inflation. Some states are adjusting taxes in response: Utah, for example, moved to reduce individual and corporate income tax rates for 2022.

Stacker examined data from the nonprofit Tax Foundation to see which states have recorded the biggest tax growth in the last four decades. States were ranked by the percentage-point change of each state’s effective tax rate from 1980 to 2022. Ties were broken by the growth from 2021. The overall per capita burden was used if those numbers were the same.

Effective tax rates were calculated by dividing the state and local taxes residents pay by the state’s share of the gross national product. Those taxes include property, sales, income, and other taxes recorded by the Census Bureau’s State and Local Government Finance division.

In 2022, the national average state-local tax burden is 11.2%, unchanged from the year before. “Tax burden” is a term used to describe the effective amount of taxes each person in a state pays its government. “State-local” refers to a combination of state and local tax rates, excluding federal taxes. It can account for income and the portion of corporate taxes shifted to consumers via increased costs or lower wages.

Twenty-one states—including Oregon, Colorado, Alaska, Maryland, and Georgia—have lowered effective state-local tax rates since 1980. In Alaska, taxes on oil extraction have ensured a large portion of state taxes are footed by the business activities of nonresidents. Residents of the other 30 states have seen tax rates increase as much as three percentage points in that timeframe.

States with the largest tax growth have high effective tax rates overall, largely due to high state spending and tax payments to out-of-state governments. In Connecticut, for example, residents pay taxes to neighboring New York, while states with large tourism industries like Vermont and Hawaii export tax burdens to the rest of the U.S.

Only one state has seen tax rates rise more in the last four decades than the residents of the lush Hawaiian islands with its high cost of living and people paying a 14% effective tax rate (about $8,400 in taxes per person annually). Continue reading to see which it is.

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Boats and buildings in Sitka, Alaska.
Marc Cappelletti // Shutterstock

#51. Alaska

– Change from 1980: -4.3 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.5 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 4.6%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $2,943

Downtown Traverse City, Michigan.
Gary R Ennis Photos // Shutterstock

#50. Michigan

– Change from 1980: -2.0 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.4 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 8.6%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,720

Fargo, North Dakota.
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#49. North Dakota

– Change from 1980: -2.0 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.9 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 8.8%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,403

The Washington Monument and Reflecting Pool in Washington D.C.
Sean Pavone // Shutterstock

#48. District of Columbia

– Change from 1980: -1.8 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 12.0%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $11,654

Madison, Wisconsin.
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#47. Wisconsin

– Change from 1980: -1.3 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.4 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 10.9%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,231

A view of Atlanta's skyline from Lake Meer in Piedmont Park.
ESB Professional // Shutterstock

#46. Georgia

– Change from 1980: -1.0 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 8.9%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,862

The scenic river view and waterfront houses in North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.
PQK // Shutterstock

#45. South Carolina

– Change from 1980: -0.8 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.5 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 8.9%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,596

Downtown Phoenix.
Brandon Burris // Shutterstock

#44. Arizona

– Change from 1980: -0.7 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.1 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.5%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,156

The historic street clock in Wellesley, Massachusetts.
quiggyt4 // Shutterstock

#43. Massachusetts

– Change from 1980: -0.6 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.1 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 11.5%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $9,405

The western suburbs of Rapid City, South Dakota.
Hank Shiffman // Shutterstock

#42. South Dakota

– Change from 1980: -0.5 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 8.4%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,196

Casper, Wyoming.
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#41. Wyoming

– Change from 1980: -0.4 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.8 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 7.5%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,691

Charleston, West Virginia, at sunset.
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#40. West Virginia

– Change from 1980: -0.4 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.8%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,479

Astoria, Oregon, overlooking the Astoria Megler Bridge as it crosses the Columbia River.
Jess Kraft // Shutterstock

#39. Oregon

– Change from 1980: -0.4 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 10.8%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,572

Johnson City, Tennessee.
Nolichuckyjake // Shutterstock

#38. Tennessee

– Change from 1980: -0.4 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.1 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 7.6%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,036

Pedestrians strolling on a boardwalk in Ocean City, Maryland.
eurobanks // Shutterstock

#37. Maryland

– Change from 1980: -0.3 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.6 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 11.3%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $7,680

Mountain views in downtown Telluride, Colorado.
Lauren Orr // Shutterstock

#36. Colorado

– Change from 1980: -0.3 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.7%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,699

An aerial view of Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
Kevin Ruck // Shutterstock

#35. North Carolina

– Change from 1980: -0.3 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.9%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,299

Louisville, Kentucky, at night.
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#34. Kentucky

– Change from 1980: -0.2 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.4 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.6%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,669

Old harbor in Newport, Rhode Island.
Ramunas Bruzas // Shutterstock

#33. Rhode Island

– Change from 1980: -0.2 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 11.4%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,948

The St. Louis Gateway Arch in Missouri.
Paul Brady Photography // Shutterstock

#32. Missouri

– Change from 1980: -0.1 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.1 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.3%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,953

The Pittsburgh skyline as viewed from the hills.
Sean Pavone // Shutterstock

#31. Pennsylvania

– Change from 1980: -0.1 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.1 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 10.6%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,723

Boise, Idaho.
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#30. Idaho

– Change from 1980: +0.2 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.1 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 10.7%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,402

US Route 66 in Oklahoma.
TLF Images // Shutterstock

#29. Oklahoma

– Change from 1980: +0.3 percentage points
– Change from 2021: 0.0 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.0%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,527

Jackson, Mississippi.
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#28. Mississippi

– Change from 1980: +0.4 percentage points
– Change from 2021: 0.0 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.8%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,220

An aerial view of Boca Raton, Florida.
FotosForTheFuture // Shutterstock

#27. Florida

– Change from 1980: +0.4 percentage points
– Change from 2021: 0.0 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.1%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,406

Iowa City, Iowa.
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#26. Iowa

– Change from 1980: +0.5 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 11.2%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,086

The Mobile, Alabama, skyline.
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#25. Alabama

– Change from 1980: +0.5 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.8%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,585

Omaha, Nebraska.
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#24. Nebraska

– Change from 1980: +0.7 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 11.5%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,720

Columbus, Ohio, at night.
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#23. Ohio

– Change from 1980: +0.8 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.4 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 10.0%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,530

Residential suburbs in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
turtix // Shutterstock

#22. New Mexico

– Change from 1980: +0.9 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 10.2%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,835

Billings, Montana.
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#21. Montana

– Change from 1980: +0.9 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 10.5%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,795

An aerial view of Austin, Texas, and Lady Bird Lake.
Roschetzky Photography // Shutterstock

#20. Texas

– Change from 1980: +0.9 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 8.6%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,994

A scenic suburb in Ozark, Arkansas.
Trong Nguyen // Shutterstock

#19. Arkansas

– Change from 1980: +1.0 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.5 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 10.2%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,031

Indianapolis.
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#18. Indiana

– Change from 1980: +1.0 percentage points
– Change from 2021: 0.0 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.3%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,030

Homes in Highland, Utah, in a prime neighborhood with mountain and sky views.
Jason Finn // Shutterstock

#17. Utah

– Change from 1980: +1.0 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 12.1%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,750

The Seattle skyline near sundown—featuring the Spack Needle and Mt. Rainier.
Max Lindenthaler // Shutterstock

#16. Washington

– Change from 1980: +1.1 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 10.7%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $7,803

New Orleans.
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#15. Louisiana

– Change from 1980: +1.1 percentage points
– Change from 2021: 0.0 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.1%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $4,762

City Hall in downtown Concord, New Hampshire.
Wangkun Jia // Shutterstock

#14. New Hampshire

– Change from 1980: +1.1 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.1 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.6%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,593

An aerial view of Jersey City at sunset.
f11photo // Shutterstock

#13. New Jersey

– Change from 1980: +1.1 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 13.2%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $9,648

A street view of downtown Stillwater, Minnesota.
Sandra Burm // Shutterstock

#12. Minnesota

– Change from 1980: +1.2 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 12.1%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $7,763

The waterfront in Portland, Maine.
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#11. Maine

– Change from 1980: +1.5 percentage points
– Change from 2021: 0.0 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 12.4%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,906

Wichita, Kansas.
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#10. Kansas

– Change from 1980: +1.6 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.1 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 11.2%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $6,353

An aerial View of Carson City, Nevada.
Jacob Boomsma // Shutterstock

#9. Nevada

– Change from 1980: +1.8 percentage points
– Change from 2021: -0.3 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 9.6%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $5,554

An aerial view of downtown Wilmington, Delaware.
Real Window Creative // Shutterstock

#8. Delaware

– Change from 1980: +2.1 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 12.4%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $7,170

The San Diego skyline, as viewed from Point Loma Island, California.
Rigucci // Shutterstock

#7. California

– Change from 1980: +2.1 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 13.5%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $10,167

The skyline of Richmond, Virginia.
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#6. Virginia

– Change from 1980: +2.1 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.1 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 12.5%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $7,979

Skyscrapers and Lake Michigan in Chicago.
DiegoMariottini // Shutterstock

#5. Illinois

– Change from 1980: +2.3 percentage points
– Change from 2021: 0.0 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 12.9%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $8,390

A cityscape view of Lower Manhattan in New York.
GagliardiPhotography // Shutterstock

#4. New York

– Change from 1980: +2.7 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.7 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 15.9%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $12,083

Montpelier, Vermont, in autumn.
Sean Pavone // Shutterstock

#3. Vermont

– Change from 1980: +2.8 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 13.6%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $7,958

Honolulu.
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#2. Hawaii

– Change from 1980: +3.1 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.2 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 14.1%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $8,410

A sailboat moored in front of a luxury waterfront estate in Greenwich, Connecticut.
James Kirkikis // Shutterstock

#1. Connecticut

– Change from 1980: +4.9 percentage points
– Change from 2021: +0.7 percentage points
– State-local effective tax rate 2022: 15.4%
– State-local tax burden per capita: $12,151

This story was written by Stacker and has been re-published pursuant to a CC BY-NC 4.0 License.

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